InnerVisions Books

Your Complete Internet AFRICENTRIC Library


      African Imports        Africentric Library    Bath & Body     Black News, Views and Info


Up you Mighty Race...You can accomplish what you will!!! - Click here to read the flag story

  Black Nationalism

Kramo Bone Amma Yeahnu Kramo Pa
"The bad Muslim makes it difficult for a good one to be identified"
(Adinkra symbol of warning against deception and hypocrisy)

This page is dedicated to the Black Nationalist individuals, movements and historical analysis of this Black social phenomenon that has deep roots in the Black Community.  We present literature of the history of Black Nationalism, major personalities of the Movement including Garvey, DuBois, Malik Shabazz (Malcolm X), etc. and conclude with a complete listing of literature/resources of those Nationalists who aspired for armed struggle i.e The Black Panther Party.

Professor Manning Marable, intellectual Black struggle activist. is the author of many books, including The Crisis of Color and Democracy: Essays on Race, Class, and Power, defines Black Nationalism as:

 “... a political and social tradition [that] would include certain characteristics. First, the advocacy of black cultural pride and the integrity of the group, which implicitly rejects racial integration. Secondly, an identification with the image of Africa which includes the advocacy by many of immigration or at least extensive contacts between Africans abroad and at home. There must be interaction, Black Nationalists would advocate, between African Americans, people of African descent in the Caribbean, and Africans on the continent of Africa itself. Third, Black Nationalism means the construction of all-black social institutions such as self-help agencies, schools and religious organizations and support for group economic advancement, such as Black cooperatives, Buy Black campaigns, and efforts to promote capital formation within the African American community. Finally, Black Nationalism has also meant historically political independence from the white-dominated political system and support for the creation of all-black political organizations and protest formations” (1992: 3).

Pinkney (Red Black Green Nationalis ) cites three elements which form the basis of contemporary black nationalism:
unity, pride in cultural heritage and autonomy”.


Edward W. Blyden

Edward Wilmot Blyden

Edward Wilmot Blyden (1832-1912) was an early proponent of Pan-Africanism and a leading black intellectual and scholar of African culture. Born in the Virgin Islands, Blyden moved to the West African nation of Liberia in 1851 and promoted the repatriation of free American blacks to Liberia. He hoped that Liberia, as an independent black-ruled nation, would become a beacon of Pan-Africanism, displaying the great achievements of Africans and people of African descent.

Blyden stressed the importance of black Africans in America linking themselves to Africa. He believed that African Americans were the key to integrating Africa into the modern world due to the integral part they had already (unwillingly) played in the construction of America. He criticized blacks of the time who dissociated themselves from Africa but was hopeful that the situation would change and that black Americans would realize the importance of Africa:

"I venture to predict that, within a very brief period, that down-trodden land instead of being regarded with prejudice and distaste,will largely attract the attention and engage the warmest interest of every man of color."

He believed American blacks were wasting their energy on the North American Continent. The work to be done by blacks, he believed, was not in America:

"It is theirs to betake themselves to injured Africa, and bless those outraged shores,"

The Black African in the US had had some advantages, but, he argued that on the whole:

"it has been at the expense of his manhood".

Productions of Mrs. Maria W. Stewart
Presented to the First African Baptist church & society, of the city of Boston

Written by Stewart who was a teacher and public speaker known for four public addresses delivered in Boston at a time when virtually no women (whether African American or white) had the courage to speak from a public platform. William Lloyd Garrison gathered her lectures together and published them in this volume. The last is her farewell address delivered in 1833, when she announced her decision to leave Boston "for I find it is no use for me, as an individual, to try to make myself useful among my color in this city.

In her powerful opening line of this address, Stewart asks her audience, “Why sit ye here and die?” Stewart was led to activism after the death of her husband, the death of David Walker, and her own spiritual conversion, and she directed her essays and lectures toward galvanizing an African-American audience. Her first essay was published in the Liberator in 1831, and represented the first political argument written by an African American woman.


African Life and Customs
Edward Wilmot Blyden

The Lost Books of Africa Rediscovered: We Charge Genocide
Khalid Abdullah Tariq Al Mansour

ASIN : 0533036518Black spokesman; selected published writings of Edward Wilmot Blyden
Edward Wilmot Blyden;Limited Availability;

ASIN : 0533036518Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race/Vol. 1-A and 1-B Bound in 1 Book
Edward Wilmot Blyden;


ASIN : 0533036518Selected Letters of Edward Wilmot Blyden
Hollis Ralph (Intr)Senghor, Leopold Sedar (Ford) Lynch; $18.00

Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race
Edward Wilmot Blyden; $14.95


ASIN : 0533036518Edward W. Blyden, Messiah of Black Revolution
George J. Benjamin; $6.95

Edward Wilmot Blyden: Pan-Negro Patriot, 1832-1912
Hollis R. Lynch;

Edward Blyden and African nationalism
Author: M. IU Frenkel§;

Education and race: A biography of Edward Wilmot Blyden
Author: Thomas W Livingston;

Black focus on multicultural education: How to develop an anti-racist, anti-sexist curriculum (A Blyden Associates how to book)
Author: Beryle Banfield;

Reminiscence of the glorious past;: Edward W. Blyden, a philosopher, pragmatic politician, pan-Africanist
Author: George J Benjamin;

A critical introduction to Edward Wilmot Blyden's American discourses on exodus, 1861-1890
Author: Cecil A Blake;

Blyden of Liberia;: An account of the life and labors of Edward Wilmot Blyden, LL.D., as recorded in letters and in print
Author: Edith Holden;


In the beginning of the 19th century, groups of freed slaves and mulattoes from the United States of America emigrated to the west coast of Africa.  Every since the slave's arrival in captivity they resisted in every manner their conditions in servitude. This period of infamy in Black history marked the beginnings of Black Nationalism as a tool toward freedom for Africans in the West.

Early Black Nationalist freedom fighters using ARMED struggle (slavery resistance)

Slave owners lived in fear of slave revolts, a fear which was far from unfounded: from the Amistad mutiny to the Underground Railroad, American slaves—led by themselves or with the help of abolitionists—staged many instances of revolt and resistance.

(Photos courtesy of The Black Holocaust for Beginners by SE Anderson)


History of the Negro Revolt
Author: C. L. R. James;
Negro slave revolts in the United States, 1526-1850
Author: Herbert Aptheker;
Book CoverAmerican Negro Slave Revolts
Author: Herbert Aptheker;
Dr. Aptheker's account of the black slave's consistent war against American slavery is meticulously researched and proven well beyond a shadow of a doubt in this book.

Product image for ASIN: 0306808676

Black Rebellion: Five Slave Revolts
Author: Thomas Wentworth Higginson;
Black Rebellion, a fascinating account of five slave insurrections, unfolds the stories of the Maroons, escaped slaves in the West Indies and South America who successfully resisted larger British armies; Gabriel Prosser, who recruited about 1,000 fellow slaves to launch a rebellion throughout Virginia; Denmark Vesey, who conspired in 1822 to kill the whites in Charleston, South Carolina; and Nat Turner led the most successful and dramatic slave revolt in North America.


Product image for ASIN: 0807117684

From Rebellion to Revolution: Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the Modern World (Walter Lynwood Fleming Lectures in Southern History (Paperback))
Author: Eugene D. Genovese;

Product image for ASIN: 1571973397

The Insurrection of the Black Americans Born in the United States of America
Author: Leon Apolon

Rumor of Revolt: The "Great Negro Plot" in Colonial New York
Author: Thomas J. Davis;
Black Resistance Before the Civil War
Author: William F. Cheek;

Product image for ASIN: 0275959457

The Logic of Black Urban Rebellions
Author: Daryl B. Harris;


Product image for ASIN: 9766401101

Slaves Who Abolished Slavery:
Blacks in Rebellion

Author: Richard Hart;


The deadliest revolt in Colonial America takes place in Stono, SC. Armed slaves start marching to Florida and towards freedom, but the insurrection is put down and at least 20 whites and more than 40 blacks are killed.

Former slave Toussaint L'Ouverture leads a slave revolt in Haiti, West Indies. He is captured in 1802, but the revolt continues and Haitian independence is declared.

Product image for ASIN: 0679724672The Black Jacobins :
Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution

Author: C.L.R. JAMES;

Toussaint L'Ouverture:
A Biography and Autobiography (The Black heritage library collection)

Author: Toussaint Louverture;

 Gabriel Prosser’s rebellion in the spring of 1800; Prosser, a deeply religious man, begins plotting an invasion of Richmond, Virginia and an attack on its armory. By summer he has enlisted more than 1,000 slaves and collected an armory of weapons, organizing the first large-scale slave revolt in the U.S. 

Product image for ASIN: 0807063371
Black Thunder :
Gabriel's Revolt: Virginia, 1800

Author: Arna Bontemps;

Louisiana slaves revolt in two parishes near New Orleans. The revolt is suppressed by U.S. troops.

On to New Orleans!: Louisiana's heroic 1811 slave revolt
Author: Albert Thrasher;

Three hundred slaves and about 20 Native American allies hold Fort Blount on Apalachicola Bay, Florida for several days before being attacked by U.S. troops.

Denmark Vesey’s revolt : A freed man, Vesey had won a lottery and purchased his emancipation in 1800. He is working as a carpenter in Charleston, South Carolina when he starts to plan a massive slave rebellion—one of the most elaborate plots in American history—involving thousands of slaves on surrounding plantations, organized into cells.

Product image for ASIN: 067944288X
Denmark Vesey
Author: David Robertson;

 Nat Turner plans a slave revolt in Southampton County, Virginia, the only effective, sustained slave rebellion in U.S. history.

Product image for ASIN: 0195134044Nat Turner:
A Slave Rebellion in History and Memory

Product image for ASIN: 0964559323

America's Black Spartacus Remembered :
The Confessions of Nat Turner

Author: Bernard Addison;

 Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad : Approximately 75,000 slaves escape to the North and to freedom via the Underground Railroad, a system in which free African American and white "conductors," abolitionists and sympathizers help guide and shelter the escapees.  Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery in Maryland. She becomes one of the best-known "conductors" on the Underground Railroad, returning to the South 19 times and helping more than 300 slaves escape to freedom.

Product image for ASIN: 0316144924

Harriet Tubman:
The Road to Freedom

Author: Catherine Clinton;


Product image for ASIN: 0590442120

Wanted Dead Or Alive :
The True Story Of Harriet Tubman

Author: Ann Mcgovern;


Frederick Douglass escapes from slavery in Baltimore. He later publishes his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave: Written by Himself, and becomes a leading abolitionist.

Led by a West African named Cinque, slaves transported aboard the Spanish ship Amistad stage a mutiny, killing the entire crew except for the captain and first mate and demanding to be sailed back to Africa.

Slaves revolt on the Creole, a slave trading ship sailing from Virginia to Louisiana. The rebels overpower the crew and successfully sail to the Bahamas, where they are granted asylum and freedom.

Led by abolitionist John Brown, a group of slaves and white abolitionists stage an attack on Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. They capture the federal armory and arsenal before the insurrection is halted by local militia.

In 1847, 25 years after the first successful colonization, they proclaimed an independent Republic, which they named Liberia. At that time they numbered about 3,000: men, women and children. 
African resistance in Liberia:

The Vai and the Gola-Bandi (Liberia Working Group papers)
Author: Monday B Abasiattai) 

The Liberian nation: A short history,
Author: A. Doris Banks Henries;

Maryland in Africa;
The Maryland State Colonization Society, 1831-1857.
Author: Penelope. Campbell;

Product image for ASIN: 1592400442Mississippi in Africa:
The Saga of the Slaves of Prospect Hill Plantation and Their Legacy in Liberia Today

Author: Alan Huffman;
Race First:
The Ideological and Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (New Marcus Garvey Library)

Author: Tony Martin; Buy New: $12.89

In urban African-American enclaves, the 1920s were marked by a flowering of cultural expressions and a proliferation of black self-help organizations that accompanied the era of the “New Negro.” Debates raged over the best political and organizational path for black Americans, and the Crisis, the national magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), offered one of the earliest and most powerful endorsements of the “New Negro.” In an editorial immediately following the Chicago race riot of 1919, Crisis editor W. E. B. Du Bois argued in favor of acts of self-defense and armed resistance, despite the editorial’s conciliatory title, "Let Us Reason Together."

Marcus Garvey;  The UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) had two paramilitary organizations that functioned like regular armed forces. The Universal African Legion was for men. The Universal African Motor Corps was for women. Members dressed in military uniform and received military training.

Cyril Briggs was the founder of the African Black Brotherhood. Born in 1888 on the Caribbean island of Nevis, he always considered himself a "race man".  African American World War I veterans could no longer remain fearful and in compliance with overtly racist actions on the home front formed in Tulsa, a branch of the African Blood Brotherhood, “a great Negro protective organization”.  The group was a propaganda organization built on the model of the secret fraternity, organized in "posts" with a centralized national organization based in New York City.  On the eve of what became known as the Tulsa Race Riot, it was the African Blood Brotherhood (ABB) that took up arms to prevent the lynching of Dick Rowland.  The 1920 ABB convention defined resistance to the KKK, support for a united front of black organizations, and promotion of higher wages and better working conditions for black workers as paramount. While calling for "racial self respect," it also maintained that cooperation with "class-conscious white workers" was necessary. Armed Negroes make Jonesboro an unusual town Author: Fred Powledge;

“The New Negro”: “When He’s Hit, He Hits Back!”

In the years immediately following World War I, tens of thousands of southern blacks and returning black soldiers flocked to the nation’s Northern cities looking for good jobs and a measure of respect and security. Many white Americans, fearful of competition for scarce jobs and housing, responded by attacking black citizens in a spate of urban race riots. In urban African-American enclaves, the 1920s were marked by a flowering of cultural expressions and a proliferation of black self-help organizations that accompanied the era of the “New Negro.” Many black leaders, including religious figures, embraced racial pride and militancy.

“You have now with you a new negro,” declared the editor of the Oklahoma City Black Dispatch in addressing a white audience. “This new negro, who stands today released in spirit, finds himself physically bound and shackled by laws and customs that were made for slaves.” Is he then seeking “social equality”? “What we want is social justice,” the speaker went on to say; “none of my race is dreaming of ‘social equality.’” "The negro is satisfied to confine his social aspirations within his own race," affirms the Hot Springs (Arkansas) Echo, “but he does want such political and economic rights as are guaranteed to every law-abiding citizen.” Putting the case still more explicitly, the Houston (Texas) Informer says: “What the colored man demands is ‘social equity.’ He wants the same rights of society that other men and races enjoy; but he does not ask [for] the association and companionship of men or women of other races.”

Black rebellion in Barbados: The struggle against slavery, 1627-1838
Author: Hilary Beckles;

A Documented History of Black Consciousness
Author: Thomas Addo Quaynor;

The Black revolt: the civil rights movement, ghetto uprisings, and separatism, (Prentice-Hall sociology series)
Author: James A Geschwender;


Product image for ASIN: 0807828475The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement
Author: Lance Hill;
Founded during the summer of 1964 in the pine hills of northern Louisiana by working-class African Americans, the Deacons for Defense and Justice was an armed self-defense organization whose very existence called into question the continued viability of nonviolent strategies and middle-class leadership within the civil rights movement.
Product image for ASIN: 1885066732

The Deacons for Defense and Justice: Defenders of the African American Community in Bogalusa, Louisiana During the 1960's
Author: Gray L. LaSimba;


The fire this time: The Miami rebellion of 1980 (Black praxis)
Author: Manning Marable;

Product image for ASIN: 0815337663

Prophets of Rage: The Black Freedom Struggle in San Francisco, 1945-1969 (Studies in African American History and Culture)
Author: Daniel E. Crowe;


The new Negro on campus: Black college rebellions of the 1920s
Author: Raymond Wolters
Ghetto rebellion to black liberation,
Author: Claude M Lightfoot;

Product image for ASIN: 0252009517

Race Riot at East St. Louis, July 2, 1917 (Blacks in the New World)
Author: Elliot Rudwick;


Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s (Carter G Woodson Institute Series in Black Studies)
Author: Gerald Horne;
Product image for ASIN: 0415907357

Reading Rodney King Reading Urban Uprising
Author: Robert Gooding-Williams;


 Product image for ASIN: 0912526831 The Underground Railroad in Orange County, New York: The Silent Rebellion
Author: Roger A. King;

Summer of rage;: The Springfield race riot of 1908, (Bicentennial studies in Sangamon history)
Author: James Krohe;

A Brief History of Black Struggle in America:
Author: Kwame Afoh;

Product image for ASIN: 1418416657

Black Pride the Philosophy And Opinions of Black Nationalism: History of Black Culture in Two Parts
Author: Herbert L. Neilly;


Pre-Civil War Black Nationalism
Author: Bill McAdoo;


On the Side of My People
by Louis A., Jr Decaro

In On the Side of My People , Louis A. DeCaro, Jr. offers the first book length religious treatment of Malcolm X. Malcolm X was certainly a political man. Yet he was also a man of Allah, struggling with his salvation--as concerned with redemption as with revolution.

Drawing on a wide variety of sources, including extensive interviews with Malcolm's oldest brother, FBI surveillance documents, the black press, and tape-recorded speeches and interviews, DeCaro examines the charismatic leader from the standpoint of his two conversion experiences--to the Nation while he was in jail and to traditional Islam climaxing in his pilgrimage to Mecca . Examining Malcolm beyond his well-known years as spokesman for the Nation, On the Side My People explores Malcolm's early religious training and the influence of his Garveyite parents, his relationship with Elijah Muhammad, his often overlooked journey to Africa in 1959, and his life as a traditional Muslim after the 1964 pilgrimage. In his critical analysis of The Autobiography of Malcolm X, DeCaro provides insight into the motivation behind Malcolm's own story, offering a key to understanding how and why Malcolm portrayed his life in his own autobiography as told to Alex Haley.

Inspiring and necessary, On the Side My People presents readers with a Malcolm X few were privileged to know. By filling in the gaps of Malcolm's life, DeCaro paints a more complete portrait of one of the most powerful and relevant civil rights figures in American history.

Fire from the Midst of You":
A Religious Life of John Brown

Author: Louis A., Jr D

Fire from the Midst of You situates Brown within the religious and social context of a nation steeped in racism, showing his roots in Puritan abolitionism. DeCaro explores Brown's unusual family heritage as well as his business and personal losses, retracing his path to the Southern gallows. In contrast to the popular image of Brown as a violent fanatic, DeCaro contextualizes Brown's actions, emphasizing the intensely religious nature of the antebellum U.S. in which he lived. He articulates the nature of Brown's radical faith and shows that, when viewed in the context of his times, he was not the religious fanatic that many have understood him to be. DeCaro calls Brown a "Protestant saint"-an imperfect believer seeking to realize his own perceived calling in divine providence.

In line with the post-millennial theology of his day, Brown understood God as working through mankind and the church to renew and revive sinful humanity. He read the Bible not only as God's word, but as God's word to John Brown . DeCaro traces Brown's life and development to show how by forging faith as a radical weapon, Brown forced the entire nation to a point of crisis.

Fire from the Midst of You defies the standard narrative with a new reading of John Brown. Here is the man that the preeminent Black scholar W.E.B. Du Bois called a "mighty warning" and the one Malcolm X called "a real white liberal."

Louis A. DeCaro, Jr. is a religious educator and pastor who lives in New Jersey . He is the author of On the Side of My People: A Religious Life of Malcolm X and its sequel, Malcolm and the Cross: The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, and Christianity , both available from NYU Press.

Malcolm and the Cross:
The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, and Christianity

Author: Louis A. Decaro;

DeCaro continues his religious biography of Malcolm X (begun in On the Side of My People, 1996), shifting from the continuity of Islam in Malcolm's development to the impact of Christianity, particularly the distortion known as "white" Christianity. He again recognizes the influence of Louise Little, Malcolm's mother, in modeling an open but critical embrace of many religious and spiritual traditions and avoiding fanatical religiosity. Such an embrace characterizes DeCaro's critical assessment of the Nation of Islam and white Christianity alike. DeCaro, who admits to pastoral motives, expects his work to rouse anger, which for a book true to Malcolm X should not be surprising. Readers will come away from it with a better understanding of Malcolm X--and the Nation of Islam, Louis Farrakhan, and Billy Graham, too--and with a greater appreciation of the revolutionary potential of religious ideas in confrontation with such distortions as those that have sustained racism throughout U.S. history. (review 1)

The mythic figure of Malcolm X conjures up a variety of images--black nationalist, extremist, civil rights leader, hero. But how often is Malcolm X understood as a religious leader, a man profoundly affected by his relationship with Allah?

During Malcolm's life and since, the press has focused on the Nation of Islam's rejection of integration, offering an extremely limited picture of its ideology and religious philosophy. Mainstream media have ignored the religious foundation at the heart of the Nation and failed to show it in light of other separatist religious movements. With the spirituality of cultic black Islam unexplored and the most controversial elements of the Nation exploited, its most famous member, Malcolm X, became one of the most misunderstood leaders in history. (review 2)


Classical Black Nationalism
by Wilson Jeremiah Moses (Editor)

Black Nationalism in the U.S. for most Americans is represented by the image and words of such persons as Stokely Carmichael or, better yet, Malcolm X. Moses situates the first expressions of Black Nationalism in the colonial period and ends them in the 1920s with Marcus Garvey, the fiery and...


Modern Black Nationalism
by William L. Van Deburg (Editor)

This wide-ranging selection of 52 documents in 37 sections locates Black Nationalism’s historical roots and 20th-century sprawl. With an incisive introduction and head notes, historian Van Deburg (African American studies, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison) insightfully maps the movement's diversity and...


Black Nationalism
by E. U. Essien-Udom
Average Customer Review: 5.0 
out of 5 stars
One of the first studies of the organization, life and meaning of the Nation of Islam and, by extension, all Black Nationalist movements, this classic work dispels the still common conception that the movement functioned primarily for political purposes. By observing the daily life of its members,


Product image for ASIN: 1558762132

Black Rebels:
African-Caribbean Freedom Fighters in Jamaica

Author: Werner Zips;

This book fulfills the author's promise to write a history of resistance instead of a history of domination.... African-Americans who escaped from slavery and developed autonomous societies beyond the fringes of the colonial system demonstrated the vulnerability of colonial rule and the vitality of black resistance.

    Fighting for Us
by Clayborne Carson (Foreword), Scot Brown

Though with each passing holiday season Kwanzaa becomes ever-more integrated into the pan-denominational celebrations beloved of greeting card companies, its origins in the tumult of the Black Power struggles of the 1960s and early '70s are little known. Likewise, the history of the "US"...

Is It Nation Time?
by Eddie S. Glaude Jr. (Editor)
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Black Power movement provided the dominant ideological framework through which many young, poor, and middle-class blacks made sense of their lives and articulated a political vision for their futures. The legacy of the movement is still very much with us

Revolutionary party, revolutionary ideology
Author: Imamu Amiri Baraka;

Kawaida theory:
An introductory outline

Author: Karenga;

Help us build a nation:
A letter to you

Author: Imari Abubakari Obadele;

The National Black Assembly and the Black liberation movement
Author: Imamu Amiri Baraka;

The Black Spiritual Movement:
 A Religious Response to Racism

Author: Hans A. Baer;

Black Christian Nationalism: New Directions for the Black Church
Author: Albert B. Cleage;

Product image for ASIN: 0671747460  Under God :
Religion and American Politics

Author: Garry Wills;


Product image for ASIN: 0837183782Black Separatism
Author: Betty Lanier Jenkins;


Red, Black, and Green:
Black Nationalism in the United States

Author: Alphonso Pinkney;

Still Black, Still Strong (Active Agents)
by Dhoruba BinWahad, Assata Shakur, Mumia Abu-Jamal
Average Customer Review: 5.0 
out of 5 stars
Memoirs/critique by US political prisoners

Product image for ASIN: 1556521685Black Self-Determination:
A Cultural History of African-American Resistance

Author: V. P. Franklin;


Product image for ASIN: 0962785482

Islam, Black Nationalism and Slavery:
A Detailed History

Author: Adib Rashad;


Brothers and Strangers
by I. K. Sundiata, Ibrahim 

Unprecedented in scope and detail, Brothers and Strangers is a vivid history of how, during the interwar years, the mythic Africa of the Black American imagination ran into the realities of Africa the place. In the 1920s, Marcus Garvey—convinced that freedom from oppression was not possible for...

 Product image for ASIN: 1418416657   Black Pride the Philosophy And Opinions of Black Nationalism:
History of Black Culture in Two Parts

Author: Herbert L. Neilly;


Africentricity & African Nationalism: Philosophy & Ideology for Africa's Complete Emancipation (Studies in the Development of the Afro-Diaspora)
Author: Kofi K. Dompere;
NBUF, genocide and the reparations movement
Author: Conrad Walter Worrill;

     Product image for ASIN: 0195206398The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850-1925
Author: Wilson Jeremiah Moses;


 Product image for ASIN: 0520062655Marcus Garvey:
Life and Lessons

Author: Robert A. Hill;


 Islam And The Black American
by Sherman A. Jackson

Sherman Jackson offers a trenchant examination of the career of Islam among the blacks of America. Jackson notes that no one has offered a convincing explanation of why Islam spread among Blackamericans (a coinage he explains and defends) but not among white Americans or Hispanics. The assumption has been that there is an African connection. In fact, Jackson shows, none of the distinctive features of African Islam appear in the proto-Islamic, black nationalist movements of the early 20th century. Instead, he argues, Islam owes its momentum to the distinctively American phenomenon of "Black Religion," a God-centered holy protest against anti-black racism.

by Eddie S. Glaude Jr.

Exodus! shows how this biblical story inspired a pragmatic tradition of racial advocacy among African Americans in the early nineteenth century--a tradition based not on race but on a moral politics of respectability. Eddie S. Glaude, Jr., begins by comparing the historical uses of Exodus by black and white Americans and the concepts of "nation" it generated. He then traces the roles that Exodus played in the National Negro Convention movement, from its first meeting in 1830 to 1843, when the convention decided--by one vote--against supporting Henry Highland Garnet's call for slave insurrection.

Exodus! reveals the deep historical roots of debates over African-American national identity that continue to rage today. It will engage anyone interested in the story of black nationalism and the promise of African-American religious culture.

The Black Power Movement
(Black Studies Research Sources)

Author: Muhammad Ahmad;

Reproduces the writings and correspondence of Muhammad Ahmad (Max Stanford); RAM internal documents; records on allied organizations, including African Peoples Party, Black Liberation Army, Black Panther Party, Black United Front, Black Workers Congress, Institute of Black Studies, League of Revolutionary Black Workers, Republic of New Africa, and Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee; rare serial publications, including Black America, Soulbook, Unity and Struggle, Black Vanguard, Crossroads, and Jihad News; and, government documents such as the FBI file on Max Stanford, testimony about RAM's role in the urban rebellions, and subject files covering key leaders associated with RAM including Malcolm X, Robert F. Williams, Amiri Baraka, and Assata Shakur, as well as on subjects such as the Black Power Conferences, the reparations movement, political prisoners, and more.

One Continual Cry: Walker's Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, 1829
Author: Harold Aptheker

Alexander Crummell: A Study of Civilization and Discontent
Author: Wilson Jeremiah Moses;

Bishop Henry McNeal Turner and African-American Religion in the South
Author: Stephen Ward Angell;

Black Gods of the Metropolis; Negro Religious Cults of the Urban North.
Author: Arthur Huff, Fauset;

A Black Odyssey: John Lewis Waller and the Promise of American Life, 1878-1900
Author: Randall Bennett Woods;
Nation building: Theory and practice in Afrikan [sic] centered education
Author: Kwame Agyei Akoto;
Building the kingdom of God upon the earth
Author: Batu A Shakari;


African Power: Affirming African Indigenous Socialization in the Face of the Culture Wars
Author: Asa G., III Hilliard;
Buy New: $11.00

Toward ideological clarity
Author: Imamu Amiri Baraka;

Sba the Reawakening of the African Mind
Author: Asa G., III Hilliard;


International Law and the Black Minority in the U.S.
Author: Y. N. Kly;


The FBI plot against the Black movement
Author: Baxter Smith;

Product image for ASIN: 0963455842

The Sankofa Movement (ReAfrikanization and the Reality of War)
Author: Kwame Agyei Akoto;


Product image for ASIN: 0714644226The Dynamics of the Armed Struggle
Author: J. Bowyer Bell;

Essays on struggle: Position and analysis
Author: Maulana Karenga;

Product image for ASIN: 0226847152

New Day in Babylon : The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965-1975
Author: William L. Van Deburg;


Product image for ASIN: 0865435111

Race and Reparations: A Black Perspective for the Twenty-First Century
Author: Clarence J. Munford;

Product image for ASIN: 0801879574

Black Power: Radical Politics and African American Identity
Author: Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar;


Africentricity & African Nationalism: Philosophy & Ideology for Africa's Complete Emancipation
Author: Kofi K. Dompere;
Book CoverAmerica's First Black Town: Brooklyn, Illinois, 1830-1915
Author: Sundiata Keita Cha-Jua;


Product image for ASIN: 0883780739

Enemies: The Clash of Races
Author: Haki R. Madhubuti;


Product image for ASIN: 0821412426

Kwame Nkrumah: The Father of African Nationalism
Author: David Birmingham;


Product image for ASIN: 1556521685

Black Self-Determination: A Cultural History of African-American Resistance
Author: V. P. Franklin;

Red, Black, and Green: Black Nationalism in the United States
Author: Alphonso Pinkney;
Book CoverThe Struggle for Liberation: From Dubois to Nyerere
Author: Bert Thomas;
Product image for ASIN: 1570752869

Introducing Black Theology of Liberation
Author: Dwight N. Hopkins;

Product image for ASIN: 0679743138

Black Power : Politics of Liberation in America
Author: Charles Hamilton;



Product image for ASIN: 1894820320

A Soldier's Story: Writings by a Revolutionary New Afrikan Anarchist
Author: Clifford Harper;


Product image for ASIN: 1894820215

All Power to the People
Author: Kuwasi Balagoon;


Product image for ASIN: 0385493681

Last Man Standing : The Tragedy and Triumph of Geronimo Pratt


Product image for ASIN: 0814713181

We Are Not What We Seem: Black Nationalism and Class Struggle in the American Century
Author: Rod Bush;


Product image for ASIN: 0226847152

New Day in Babylon : The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965-1975
Author: William L. Van Deburg;


Product image for ASIN: 0674447271

In Struggle : SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s
Author: Clayborne Carson;


Product image for ASIN: 0814327141

Negroes With Guns (African American Life Series)
Author: Robert F. Williams;


Product image for ASIN: 1578065984

Without Regard to Race: The Other Martin Robison Delany
Author: Tunde Adeleke;


Book CoverBlack Prison Movements/USA
Author: Network of Black Organizers;
Product image for ASIN: 0195087011

Into the Fire--African Americans Since 1970: African Americans Since 1970 (Young Oxford History of African Americans, V. 10)
Author: Robin D. G. Kelley;

Product image for ASIN: 0807009776

Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination
Author: Robin D.G. Kelley;


Product image for ASIN: 0195139453To Make Our World Anew: A History of African Americans
Author: Robin D. G. Kelley;
National liberation and culture (Eduardo Mondlane memorial lecture)
Author: Amílcar Cabral;
Product image for ASIN: 0195087968

We Changed the World: African Americans, 1945-1970 (The Young Oxford History of African Americans, V. 9)
Author: Vincent Harding;

Product image for ASIN: 0860915859

Imagining Home: Class, Culture, and Nationalism in the African Diaspora (The Haymarket)
Author: Sidney Lemelle;



Archival photo of Pete O'NealThe Black Panther Party was founded in late 1966, at the genesis of the Black Nationalist movement, before the notion of “Black Power” had fully replaced the theory of non-violence. 

"The Panthers had the audacity to walk around patrolling affluent white communities and suburbs. It was guerilla theater. Their message to residents was, let's see how you like someone armed, in uniform, of a color different from you, walking around in your neighborhood." -- Hugh Pearson, The Shadow of the Panther: Huey Newton and the Price of Black Power in America

Black Panthers
by Ruth-Marion Baruch (Photographer), Pirkle Jones (Photographer), Kathleen Neal Cleaver (Introduction)
Book Description : In 1968, FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover vilified the Black Panthers as "the greatest threat to the internal security of the United States."

Product image for ASIN: 0684850044

Ready for Revolution :
The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture)

Author: Stokely Carmichael;

CoverRevolution by the Book:
The Rap Is Live

Jamil Al-Amin

It is criminal that, in the 1990’s, we still approach struggle… sloganeering, saying, “by any means necessary,” as if that’s a program. Or, “we shall overcome,” as if that’s a program. Slogans are not programs. We must define the means, which will bring about change. This can be found in… [what] Allah has brought for us in the Qur’an and in the example of the Prophet. Our revolution must be according to what Almighty God revealed.

The struggle is an ongoing program… When the first slave rebelled against being a slave, he gave an alternative to slavery that has been built upon until now. That’s struggle; and there have been many movements in the struggle—The abolitionist movement, the antislavery movement, the civil right movement, but, the struggle still goes on.

The mission of a believer in Islam is totally different from coexisting or being the part of the system. The prevailing morals are wrong. Their ethics are wrong. Western philosophy… has reduced man to food, clothing, shelter, and the sex drive, which means he doesn’t have a spirit… Successful struggle requires a Divine Program. Allah has provided that program.

Soledad Brother
by George Jackson
From Library Journal
Jackson gained notoriety shortly before his death in 1970 when his younger brother unsuccessfully tried to free him at gunpoint when Jackson and two others were on trial for killing a guard. Written between 1964 and 1970 while serving time in Soledad Prison for robbery

Soul on Ice
"A collection of essays straight out of Dante's Inferno.  The hell is there, and its name is America...as with Malcolm X, Cleaver's book is a spiritual autobiography.  An odyssey of a soul in search of itself, groping toward a personal humanism which will give meaning to...

Seize the Time
by Bobby Seale

Bobby Seale is a longtime activist and cofounder of The Black Panther Party. This work is his riveting first-person account of the evolution of The Party as a national organization.

Angela Davis
by Angela Yvonne Davis
Activist-scholar Angela Y. Davis was one of the most potent radical political symbols of the '70s, her defiantly clenched fist raised high over her reddish-brown, full-blown Afro. Her "celebrity" was launched when she was put on trial in 1972 in San Jose, California, for murder and kidnapping,...

Die Nigger Die!
A Political Autobiography

by H. Rap Brown (Foreword), Jamil Al-Amin, Ekwueme Michael Thelwell

"A powerful autobiographical and revolutionary statement . . . written with precision and a poetic flow of language."


Product image for ASIN: 0896087182

We Want Freedom : A Life in the Black Panther Party
Author: Mumia Abu-Jamal;

Product image for ASIN: 0863162460

War Against the Panthers: A Study of Repression in America
Author: Huey P. Newton;

Product image for ASIN: 0385471076

A Taste of Power : A Black Woman's Story


Product image for ASIN: 0631203613

The Angela Y. Davis Reader (Blackwell Readers)
Author: Joy James;

Product image for ASIN: 0415927838

Liberation, Imagination and the Black Panther Party : A New Look at the Black Panthers and their Legacy
Author: Kathleen Cleaver;


Product image for ASIN: 0896087182

We Want Freedom : A Life in the Black Panther Party
Author: Mumia Abu-Jamal;


Product image for ASIN: 1556524528

Die Nigger Die! A Political Autobiography
Author: H. Rap Brown;


Book CoverOn the Black Liberation Army
Author: Jalil Muntaqim;
Product image for ASIN: 1894925122Message to the Black Movement: A Political Statement from the Black Underground
Author: Black Liberation Army) Co-Ordinati Bla;


On the ideology of the Black Panther Party
Author: Eldridge Cleaver;
The Road to Hell: The True Story of George Jackson, Stephen Bingham and the San Quentin Massacre
Author: Paul Liberatore;
From somewhere in the world: Assata Shakur speaks-- message to the New Afrikan Nation
Author: Assata Shakur;
You can almost hold it in your hands: Sundiata Acoli's long walk to freedom
Author: Sundiata Acoli;
A lonely rage: The autobiography of Bobby Seale (A Bantam book)
Author: Bobby Seale;
My life with the Black Panther Party
Author: Akua Njeri;
Product image for ASIN: 1556520743

Assata: An Autobiography (Lawrence Hill & Co.)
Author: Assata Shakur;

The Road to Hell: The True Story of George Jackson, Stephen Bingham and the San Quentin Massacre
Author: Paul Liberatore;
Product image for ASIN: 080700975XThe Condemnation of Little B.
Author: Elaine Brown;
This Side of Glory: The Autobiography of David Hilliard and the Story of the Black Panther Party
Author: David Hilliard;
Product image for ASIN: 0385493673

Last Man Standing : The Tragedy and Triumph of Geronimo Pratt


On the Black Liberation Army
Author: Jalil Muntaqim;


Product image for ASIN: 093312130X

 Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton
Author: Bobby Seale;


Spitting in the Wind: The True Story Behind the Violent Legacy of the Black Panther Party
Author: Earl Anthony;
Product image for ASIN: 0863163262 Revolutionary Suicide
Author: Huey P. Newton;
Product image for ASIN: 0922915636Snitch Culture: How Citizens are Turned into the Eyes and Ears of the State
Author: Jim Redden;
Product image for ASIN: 0743246233Life After Life : A Story of Rage and Redemption
Author: Evans Hopkins;


Product image for ASIN: 0743470540

Afeni Shakur : Evolution of a Revolutionary
Author: Jasmine Guy;


Cointelpro: The Fbi's Secret War on Political Freedom
Author: Nelson Blackstock;
A brief history of the new Afrikan prison struggle
Author: Sundiata Acoli;
Picking up the gun;: A report on the Black Panthers
Author: Earl Anthony;
Agony in New Haven;: The trial of Bobby Seale, Ericka Huggins, and the Black Panther Party
Author: Donald Freed;
If They Come in the Morning: Voices of Resistance
Author: Angela Yvonne Davis
Product image for ASIN: 0295976594

The Making of Black Revolutionaries
Author: James Forman;


Black human rights statement from Assata Shakur
Author: Assata Shakur;
Assata speaks: And the people speak on Assata
Author: Assata Shakur;
From somewhere in the world: Assata Shakur speaks-- message to the New Afrikan Nation
Author: Assata Shakur;

Product image for ASIN: 1565849612

Framing the Black Panthers: The Spectacular Rise of a Black Power Icon
Author: Jane Rhodes;


Africentric Readings

Product image for ASIN: 0814713181

We Are Not What We Seem :
Black nationalism and class struggle in the American century
Author: Rod Bush;

Classical Black Nationalism
 Wilson Jeremiah Moses


Product image for ASIN: 0195206398 The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850-1925
Author: Wilson Jeremiah
Product image for ASIN: 0226298221

Is It Nation Time? : contemporary essays on black power and black nationalism
Author: Eddie S. Glaude J

Black Identity
Author: Dexter B. Gordon;
Product image for ASIN: 0837194393

Afro-Americans and Africa :
Black nationalism at the crossroads

Author: William B.


The rediscovery of Black nationalism
Author: Theodore Draper;
Martin R. Delany :
the beginnings of black nationalism.
Author: Victor Ullman;
The ideological origins of Black nationalism
Author: Sterling Stuckey;
Black Nationalism and the Revolution in Music
Author: Frank Kofsky;
Black Nationalism in the New World
Author: Robert Carr;
The Roots of Black Nationalism
Author: Rodney P. Carlisle;
Africentricity & African Nationalism :
philosophy and ideology for Africa's complete emancipation
Author: Kofi K. Dompere;
Product image for ASIN: 0313310637 African America and Haiti :
emigration and Black nationalism in the nineteenth century
Author: Chris Dixon;
Black nationalism,
Author: Giovanna R Jackson;
Black nationalism in Africa, 1867;
Author: James Africanus Beale
Black nationalism;
a search for an identity in America.

Author: Essien Udosen Essien-Udom;
Pre-Civil War Black Nationalism
Author: Bill McAdoo;
Leon Trotsky on Black Nationalism and Self Determinati...
Author: Leon Trotsky;


Black Nationalism in America
Author: John H. Bracey;
The Black Power Revolt
Author: Floyd B. Barbour;
Black Power :
radical politics and African American identity

Author: Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar;
Product image for ASIN: 081312056X

Unafrican Americans : nineteenth-century Black nationalists and the civilizing mission
Author: Tunde Adeleke;


The Black Seventies
Author: Floyd B. Barbour;
Multinational Corporations and Black Power
Author: Harry G. Matthews;


Product image for ASIN: 1572332107

Bruce Grit :
the Black nationalist writings of John Edward Bruce
Author: William Seraile;



Product image for ASIN: 0226138615

Black Visions :
the roots of contemporary African-American political ideologies

Author: Michael C. Dawson;


Product image for ASIN: 0195109783

Black Liberation :
a comparative history of Black ideologies in the United States

Author: George M. Fredrickson;


Product image for ASIN: 019514290X

"Takin' It to the Streets" :
A sixties reader
Author: Alexander Bloom;


Strategy for a Black agenda;
a critique of new theories of liberation in the United

Author: Henry Winston;


Product image for ASIN: 1592212808

Truth Crushed to the Earth Will Rise Again!
The East organization and the principles and practice of Black nationalist development

Author: Kwasi Konadu;


Product image for ASIN: 0521626277

Black Nationalism in American Politics and Thought
Author: Dean E. Robinson;


Black Globalism :
the international politics of a non-state nation
Author: Sterling Johnson;
Seething African Pot :
a study of black nationalism, 1882-1935.
Author: Daniel Thwaite;
Product image for ASIN: 081479369X

In The Company Of Black Men
Author: Craig Steven Wilder;


Product image for ASIN: 0231119070

A Covenant with Color
Author: Craig Steven Wilder;


Product image for ASIN: 0140281134

Black Leadership :
Author: Manning Marable;


Kawaida studies :
the new nationalism
Author: Imamu Amiri Baraka
Product image for ASIN: 157075182X

Black Religion and Black Radicalism :
an interpretation of the religious history of Afro-American people
Author: Gayraud S. Wilmore;


Product image for ASIN: 0896085872

Talking About a Revolution :
Author: South End Press Collective;


Product image for ASIN: 0814798772

Fighting for Us :
Maulana Karenga, the US organization, and black cultural nationalism
Author: Scot Brown;


Heroism and the Black Intellectual :
Author: Jerry Gafio Watts;
Black fundamentalism :
Author: Institute of Race Relations;
Product image for ASIN: 0878054936

Race, Reform, and Rebellion :
Author: Manning Marable;


Product image for ASIN: 096723669X

Black Panthers :
Author: Ruth-Marion Baruch;


Product image for ASIN: 0936756748

Still Black, Still Strong :
survivors of the U.S. war against Black revolutionaries
Author: Dhoruba BinWahad;


Our Black seminarians and Black clergy without a Black theology :
the tragedy of Black people/Africans in religion today

Author: Yosef Ben-Jochannan;
Product image for ASIN: 0679440909

The House That Race Built :
Black Americans, U.S. terrain


The Black Progress Question :
explaining the African-American predicament
Author: Stephen Burman;
A Black value system :
Author: Imamu Amiri Baraka;


Independent Black Leadership in America :
Author: Lenora Fulani;
Black leadership in America, 1895-1968 :
Author: John White;
Africa for the Africans :
Author: Kwame Nantanbu;
Product image for ASIN: 0912469234

Race First :
Author: Tony Martin;


Product image for ASIN: 0814787894

Modern Black Nationalism :
Author: William L. Van Deburg;


From the Maroons to Marcus :
Author: Seko Tafari;
Product image for ASIN: 0837183782

Black Separatism :
a bibliography
Author: Betty Lanier Jenkins;


Product image for ASIN: 1556521685

Black Self-Determination :
a cultural history of African-American resistance
Author: V. P. Franklin;


Black Messiahs and Uncle Toms :
Author: Wilson Jeremiah Moses;
Black power and the Garvey movement :
Author: Theodore G Vincent;


Sunset on utopian dreams :
an experiment of Black separatism on the American frontier
Author: Thomas Knight;
Product image for ASIN: 1558762132

Black Rebels :
African-Caribbean freedom fighters in Jamaica
Author: Werner Zips;


Product image for ASIN: 1574780077

Death of White : Sociology
Author: Joyce A. Ladner;


Afro-American nationalism :
an annotated bibliography of militant separatist
Author: Agustina Herod;
Product image for ASIN: 019518081X

Islam And The Blackamerican:
looking toward the third resurrection
Author: Sherman A. Jackson;


Product image for ASIN: 0275962849

From Black to African American :
a new social representation
Author: Gina Philogene;


Product image for ASIN: 0807849979

Proudly We Can Be Africans :
Black Americans and Africa, 1935-1961
Author: James Hunter Meriwether;


Malcolm X :
in our own image
Author: Joe Wood;
The Word :
the liberation analects of Malcolm X
Author: Robert Jabara;
Product image for ASIN: 0814321852

Pan Africanism in the African Diaspora :
an analysis of modern Afrocentric political movements
Author: Ronald W. Walters;


Retreat to the Ghetto :
the end of a dream?
Author: Thomas Lucien Vincent. Blair;
Oyotunji Village :
the Yoruba movement in America
Author: Carl M. Hunt;
Black fundamentalism
Author: Institute of Race Relations;
Pan-Africanism for Beginners
Author: Sid Lemelle;
Product image for ASIN: 0807824577

A Nation Within a Nation
Author: Komozi Woodard;

African Fundamentalism
Author: Tony Martin;
The Roots of Black Nationalism
Author: Rodney P. Carlisle;
Product image for ASIN: 0521626277Black Nationalism in American Politics and Thought
Author: Dean E. Robinson;
Product image for ASIN: 0415173531Pan-African History
Author: Marika Sherwood;


Product image for ASIN: B00007IDY3

El Che - Investigating a Legend
Buy New: $14.96

All Power to the People - Black Panther Suite
Buy New: $19.78

Product image for ASIN: B0000EMYBQ

A Huey P. Newton Story
Buy New: $13.48

Product image for ASIN: 0803270755 Guerrilla Warfare: Che Guevara
Author: Ernesto Guevara;


Click link to find out what other Black Panthers have to say today

Black Panthers Today
Hear from former Black Panthers Kathleen Cleaver, Yvonne King, Bobby Seale, Billy X. Jennings, Barbara Easley, and Elbert Howard about what their work with the Panthers has evolved into today. Watch a clip of Pete O'Neal talking about the evolution of his once-revolutionary rhetoric.



The New Black Panther Party for Self Defense takes its name from the original Black Panther Party, a radical black nationalist group active in the 1960s and 1970s. Since the late 1990s, it has become the largest organized anti-Semitic black militant group in America. After the death of its former leader Khalid Muhammad in February 2001, Malik Zulu Shabazz, a Washington D.C.-based attorney, took over leadership of the group. Under Shabazz, the group continues to organize demonstrations across the country that blend inflammatory bigotry with calls for black empowerment and civil rights.

 A Disjointed Search for the Will to Live
Author: Robin D. G. Kelley;

Product image for ASIN: 1887128778Shaka N’Zinga’s powerful memoir reveals the personal and political transformation of an African American youth growing up in the urban poverty of Baltimore. The writing slips between present and past and between poetry and prose, gradually revealing the protagonist’s shifts in consciousness. Incarcerated since age sixteen, the author's articles have been influential in prisoner support networks. The book joins such classics as Eldridge Cleaver’s Soul on Ice and George Jackson’s Soledad Brother.


Home | Onepeoples Ezine | African Craft Caravan | Earthly Essentials |
| InnerVisions Bookstore | Contact  |